We used peer-reviewed publications to provide a research-based approach, where possible, for the advice provided on this website. Here is a selection of such papers. 

Burne G, Mansfield M, Gaida JE, Lewis JS. Is there an association between metabolic syndrome and rotator cuff-related shoulder pain? A systematic review. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine 2019;5:e000544.

Cook T, Minns Lowe C, Maybury M, Lewis JS. Are corticosteroid injections more beneficial than anaesthetic injections alone in the management of rotator cuff-related shoulder pain? A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2018;52, 497. 

Gillespie MA, Mącznik A, Wassinger C, Sole G. Rotator cuff-related pain: patients’ understanding and experiences. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice 2017;30:64-71. 

Ho CY, Sole G, Munn J. The effectiveness of manual therapy in the management of musculoskeletal disorders of the shoulder: a systematic review. Manual Therapy 2009;14:463-74. 

Hotta GH, Gomes de Assis Couto A, Cools AM, McQuade KJ, Siriani de Oliveira A. Effects of adding scapular stabilization exercises to a periscapular strengthening exercise program in patients with subacromial pain syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice 2020;49:102171. 

Lähdeoja T, Karjalainen T, Jokihaara J, Salamh P, Kavaja L, Agarwal A, . . . Ardern CL. Subacromial decompression surgery for adults with shoulder pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2020;54:665. 

Lewis J. Frozen shoulder contracture syndrome - Aetiology, diagnosis and management. Manual Therapy 2015;20(1):2-9. 

Lewis J, O’Sullivan P. Is it time to reframe how we care for people with non-traumatic musculoskeletal pain? British Journal of Sports Medicine 2018;52:1543. 

Lewis J, Ridehalgh C, Moore A, Hall K. This is the day your life must surely change: Prioritising behavioural change in musculoskeletal practice. Physiotherapy 2021 (in press). 

Lin I, Wiles L, Waller R, Goucke R, Nagree Y, Gibberd M, . . . O’Sullivan PB. What does best practice care for musculoskeletal pain look like? Eleven consistent recommendations from high-quality clinical practice guidelines: systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2020;54:79.

Ketola S, Lehtinen JT, Arnala I. Arthroscopic decompression not recommended in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy. The Bone & Joint Journal 2017;99-B:799-805. 

Kuhn JE, Dunn WR, Sanders R, An Q, Baumgarten KM, Bishop JY, . . . Group MS. Effectiveness of physical therapy in treating atraumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2013;22:1371-9. 

Lenoir D, De Pauw R, Van Oosterwijck S, Cagnie B, Meeus M. Acupuncture versus sham acupuncture: a meta-analysis on evidence for longer-term effects of acupuncture in musculoskeletal disorders. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2020;36. 

Meehan K, Wassinger C, Roy JS, Sole G. Seven key themes in physical therapy advice for patients living with subacromial shoulder pain. A scoping review. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 2020;50:285-93. 

Mertens MG, Meert L, Struyf F, Schwank A, Meeus M. Exercise therapy is effective for improvement in range of motion, function, and pain in patients with frozen shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 (in press). 

Pieters L, Lewis J, Kuppens K, Jochems J, Bruijstens T, Joossens L, Struyf F. An update of systematic reviews examining the effectiveness of conservative physiotherapy interventions for subacromial shoulder pain. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 2020;50:131-41. 

Rangan A, Hanchard N, McDaid C. What is the most effective treatment for frozen shoulder? BMJ, 2016;354, i4162. 

Sole G, Mącznik AK, Ribeiro DC, Jayakaran P, Wassinger CA. Perspectives of participants with rotator cuff-related pain to a neuroscience-informed pain education session: an exploratory mixed method study. Disability & Rehabilitation 2020;42:1870-79. 

Stanhope J, Breed MF, Weinstein P. Exposure to greenspaces could reduce the high global burden of pain. Environmental Research. 2020;187:109641. 

Steuri R, Sattelmayer M, Elsig S, Kolly C, Tal A, Taeymans J, Hilfiker R. Effectiveness of conservative interventions including exercise, manual therapy and medical management in adults with shoulder impingement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2017;51:1340. 

van den Dolder PA, Ferreira PH, Refshauge KM. Effectiveness of soft tissue massage and exercise for the treatment of non-specific shoulder pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2014;48:1216-1226.